Function principle of LEDs
An LED converts electrical energy into light and heat. She works like a semiconductor diode that emits light between their two semiconductor layers. Depending on the semiconductor crystal and doping, light is emitted at a different wavelength or color. Both threshold voltage and the efficiency are also dependent on the structure of the semiconductor crystal.
LEDs are available in different performance classes, types and distribution patterns. The basic structure is always the same.
On a mounting plate that the current leadership, as well as the heat dissipation serves, the semiconductor crystal is applied. The upper semiconductor layer is connected by a gold wire with the mating contact. In addition, when using white light emitting diodes, the semiconductor crystal is coated with a phosphor (see light color). The whole structure is finally protected with a plastic lens, which also defines the emission characteristic of the light-emitting diode, from external influences.